Kakhovka HPP is a case of victory of Russian disinformation over the truth


I was prompted to write this material by articles and comments in the mass media and the situation in the information space, which developed as a result of the terrorist attack on the Kakhovska Dam. Therefore, I consider this text, written specifically from the Ukrainian perspective, necessary for the distribution of Western media. I waited more than a week for the emotions to calm down, for everyone to exhale, and for the most aggressive part of the russian information operation to end.


WARNING! This material was written in Polish with an eye on the Polish reader. What you see in front of you is an adapted Ukrainian translation. Don't worry, you will be interested, but if you have the opportunity to distribute the original to Polish-speaking readers (link here), we will be eternally grateful. We speak for ourselves.

And so...

If the Poles, Czechs, Germans or any other inhabitants of old Europe accepted the situation and decided that the war was going on somewhere very far away, and they were no longer threatened by it, then they are very much mistaken. The hostilities are really taking place hundreds of kilometers away, the front is far away, but the war has not only knocked on their door, but is already happening literally in everyone's hand and head, although not yet in all dimensions, and as they say, "there will be more."

There have already been many conversations, conferences, tables, summits and everything in the world about disinformation, information warfare, fake news, countering propaganda and etc., but unfortunately, the most common result of all this was successful holding of these events. Despite the one and a half years since the large invasion in Ukraine, nine years of hybrid aggression and sixteen years since putin's Munich speech about the actual declaration of the next round of the Cold War, very little has been done in terms of countering information operations, and now I am an example of that for you. An example from which, even if you really want to, you cannot hide anywhere in the world. A serious, thought-out and very powerful information operation lasted for more than a week, the likes of which have not yet been seen, but will certainly be in the future, so I highly recommend reading this article to the end.

We will be talking about a perfectly prepared, thought out and launched at the right moment, using all available resources, operation in which the destruction of the dam was not the result, but the tool to launch something much bigger, and probably more catastrophic. The operation was to change the opinion of the whole world in one step from "the Russians are one hundred percent aggressor and we condemn them" to "we will never know the truth" and "we cannot say exactly what happened". Of course, they were working like this before, and half the world (in terms of population) either thinks so or doesn't think anything at all about it, but it was a powerful step to consolidate and deepen the results of this work in Europe and the United States. To sow doubts about what happened, and thus undermine the authority of everything that was and will be said in the context of the war with Ukraine, and turn the infofield into an overflowing bag of doubts, fake news and shams, from which it is very difficult to extract the truth without the use of special tools.

Let's start from the very beginning

On the night of June 5-6, at 2:50 a.m., a powerful explosion occurred at the dam of the Kakhovska HPP. In the first hours after the event, there was almost no information about it, because it seemed incredible, although there were talks, predictions and simulations of it during the year since the russians took over the facility. The first news about the destruction of the dam appeared in the russian media and from self-proclaimed russian officials and local collaborators. They were mostly about the fact that... nothing has happened. (message on photo 1)

Despite the fact that there were talks about it all the time, and Ukrainian intelligence repeatedly confirmed that the dam was mined, it was hard to believe it, because it was an emergency situation. Missile attacks and news of friends dying are sad, but mundane, which makes it sadder, while something like this is completely out of whack because of the scale and consequences. That is why such news is always accompanied by a lot of emotions, and here they did more harm than help, because emotions do not know how to wait, and demand information immediately.

From the moment the first video was published at around 5 am, everyone realized that the worst possible predictions had come true and the dam had been completely destroyed, and the water was not being released uncontrollably, but catastrophically. Experts and bloggers immediately remembered the predictions of Swedish scientists regarding the possible destruction of the dam, which were very pessimistic and at the time of publication they were being chased around the network as a scarecrow. In the Ukrainian segment of the Internet, there were no doubts about the perpetrators of this attack. The russians did this because they controlled the dam and Nova Kakhovka, they mined it because they were protecting this area from an attack. But this confidence of Ukrainians, as it turned out, was not obvious to everyone. Why did this happen? Or maybe the truth is not so clear-cut?

I will try to be brief. This terrorist attack was effectively prepared and planned, but according to the Russian tradition, it was implemented very unprofessionally, so its real effects far exceeded the planned ones. In any case, what happened has happened, no one was going to change the methods and regardless of their partial or complete idiocy, the mass information campaign began according to the previously approved plan, although it was implemented in the beginning in the best traditions. Well, you know how. Its essence was to confuse the maps in the media space and saturate the infofield with information in such a way that a person who does not follow the context of events could not understand what happened.

As in the case of the downing of Boeing MH17 in 2014, the russians started with a hit parade of versions. At first, as I mentioned, nothing happened. At 5:27 a.m., TASS (russia's official state media) quotes the so-called head of the mayor's office, Leontiev, "everything is quiet and calm, nothing is happening at all." This is 2.5 hours after the dam collapse. (photo)


Less than 20 minutes later, TASS reports that the dam has been destroyed, but there was no shelling, so the dam collapsed by itself. One rack fell off and everything collapsed. (photo)


7 minutes later, TASS, quoting the words of the same Leontiev as half an hour ago, reported that a massive shelling of the dam took place at night, which led to its destruction. Apparently, they were just talking about some other dam in Nova Kakhovka, they were mistaken, as happens with anyone. (photo)


Less than an hour later, TASS published a report that, most likely, the dam was destroyed by the Ukrainian armed forces using the Vilkha missile launcher, and not one, but 11 of the dam's 28 locks were destroyed. (photo)


How did it happen that the sound of the explosion of several rockets with an explosive part weighing 250 kg (in the maximum equipment of this type of rocket) remained unnoticed and everything fell silent? TASS does not report on this. (you can get acquainted with all these messages in the official TASS telegram, as if they have not been cleaned yet)

In the first two hours, there were no more official messages and versions, but they were not needed anyway, as the operation moved to the next stage. After the appearance of the first photos, the first news about the disaster began to appear in the Western media, to which we will pay special attention. As an example, I chose mainly Polish, some Czech and American media, particularly their Facebook pages, because there is an opportunity to leave comments, many people learn about news from Facebook itself.

For the sample, I took the sites of Polish TVP, TVN 24, Polsat News, American CNN and several Czech portals.

Under each of these messages (this applies both to the first message and to each subsequent one) within an hour after publication, an analyst appeared in the comments, which proved in several ways that this disaster was caused by an attack from Ukraine. And do not be surprised that the Pole Michal knows where the Russian defense lines, weapons depots and minefields were located on the left (eastern) bank of the Dnipro river, Ryshard has an analysis of the conclusions of American intelligence studies about the intentions of the russians to blow up the dam, and Richard has information about when and how the russians withdrew from Nova Kakhovka (no), and that since then the dam was in the hands of Ukrainian troops (also no). Various commentators have also repeatedly mentioned and drawn analogies with Nord Stream-2, which, according to russian propaganda, was also destroyed by the Ukrainians. And these are only comments from a post on the TVP Info website. On the attached screenshot, comments from empty fake accounts are collected under the first two messages.


TVN24 greets us with comments, for example, by Ms. Milena, who knows very well that all this is the work of CIPSO (russian abbreviation is the name of the unit of the Security Service of Ukraine that deals with information activities). Or from Mr. Robert, who knows that this is the main reservoir of water for Crimea, so blowing up this dam is as profitable as possible for Ukrainians, because not giving water to Crimea is the main goal of Ukraine, and it doesn’t matter that by February 2022 no one will bring water to Crimea did not give at the whole dam. Mr. Mikhal, in turn, already knows the plans of the Ukrainian counteroffensive, so he rightly noted that it could not be the Russians, because they did not defend themselves at all, but planned to attack the western bank through the Dnipro river, and that is how Ukraine defended itself. (photo). This is TVN 24


I literally picked a few comments from each post. You can go there and look and read the rest and at the same time make sure that all the sites I mentioned and most of the ones not mentioned are empty fake accounts with a few pictures. Don't believe it, go and check it out.



The point here is not that the entire office of trolls sits and waits for such messages in order to comment on them as soon as possible. NO. It works much easier. It simply starts an automatic search for words, for example, "dam", "dike", "Kakhovka" and so on, then they find a public post, regardless of who and where it was distributed, and even then they climb into the comments.

Example. After the dam was blown up, I shared a post on our company's Facebook page, which has a little over 300 followers, about how we have long worked with the Kakhovka plant and sympathize with the victims of this terrorist attack. I didn't think I could use this post as an example in this article, but I was wrong. After 15 minutes, there was already one expert (photo) in the comment with an error in the name. His page is all in solid shares and there is no information about him or his photos. Standard. In a few minutes more appeared. As you may have guessed, he was not a follower of our page, the keyword search worked here. How many other small corporate or private pages have been visited by such "experts" can only be guessed, since they reached out even to our small and almost imperceptible page. I will only say that the reach of such work is huge and reaches every active user of social networks.


Comments are not everything. A laughing emoticon under the news about the disaster makes an impression even on those people who do not read anything under the post and continue swiping, but the emoticon is reflected in the memory. The laughing emoji is a powerful weapon in the hands of trolls, and believe me, they are very good at it.

These were the first comments under these posts, so that anyone who sees this article has no doubt that the media is lying, and everyone around knows the truth, because they know each other and have many different arguments for every taste. Hardly anyone goes to the commenters' sites and checks their authenticity, so there is no shortage of real people's reactions under such fake comments. The exact same thing happens on Czech portals (photo) and English-language portals (photo ). You can also check out the German and French media pages yourself. I looked at them, but I didn't take any screenshots. You will have homework.


And this is only the beginning of this campaign. Let's call it soil preparation. Immediately after the explosion, official, but not specific, statements of russian officials began, primarily putin's spokesman dmitrii peskov, that russia condemned all accusations of russia's involvement in undermining the dam, but directly blamed Kyiv authorities for it. And it would seem, well, what if peskov accused someone and denied something? He denied attacking Ukraine, denied shooting down the Boeing, denied the Bucha massacre, and blamed Ukraine for each of these crimes. But.

But his words were greatly inflated in the media world as a statement of the "other side", as if it was about some ordinary international dispute. As if before, every word of peskov did not turn out to be lies and attempts to hide russian war crimes. This is just a statement from the other side, because every word has a right to exist. It was under these names that articles were published, for example, in the New York Times. Example. This is not the only portal where "both sides blame each other for the explosion", you can check what was written in the USA on the morning of June 6. The official website of the UN, for example, reacted in the same way. Nobody did anything, it just happened and we are very concerned about it. Of course, they did not react immediately. Immediately after the attack, the International Day of the russian Language was celebrated, which caused a real "furor" in the Ukrainian segment of the Internet, but whatever it was, we are not talking about that.

Due to ambiguity, this event, which without exaggeration can be called the biggest environmental disaster in Europe in recent years, remained out of the attention of the largest organizations involved in the protection of nature, such as GreenPeace, WWF and others. Nothing happened, it's just that today we are protecting nature in another place.

And that was the second step. Blurring of responsibility in the media and ascertaining the event without clarifying the reasons on the very first day, when the interest is greatest. There was a pro-russian lobby in the Western media and the russian "opposition" (photo) abroad, official foreign russian propaganda, pro-russian bloggers and public opinion leaders connected to russia by views or money. Mostly money. And most importantly, the purpose of this step was not to convince the world that the perpetrators of this attack were Ukrainians. The goal was to prove that the situation is unclear, everything is not so clear, we do not know the whole truth and, in principle, the main thing is that it is bad, whoever did it. And this goal was achieved because at the moment of the greatest resonance and emotions, that is, in the first 24 hours after the event, this "ambiguity" reigned in the world information field. You might say, okay, maybe the US or some other country really didn't have enough information and it took time for everyone to come to any serious conclusions. Maybe, but no. Unfortunately.


No historical event can be judged out of context. This is a foundation that cannot be forgotten. Nothing happens just like that, everything comes from somewhere and goes to something. Out-of-context situations do happen, of course, but they are the exception, not the rule. In the case of the Kakhovka dam, an important tool is the context of events. Under what circumstances did this happen? Let's start with the outer circle of circumstances, slowly moving to more and more close in time.

  • The terrorist attack happened during the war in Ukraine, which was unleashed by russia. This had never happened before the invasion, and there was no sign that it might happen.
  • From the very beginning of the massive invasion, the Ukrainian authorities declared their intention to return all the newly occupied territories, as well as those occupied in 2014, therefore, during the offensive in the north and other directions, the Ukrainian armed forces tried to prevent the massive destruction of infrastructure and property.
  • During this invasion, the dam had already been demolished to limit the offensive capabilities of the enemy forces. This happened at the very beginning of the invasion in February on the Irpin River in Demydiv, north of Kyiv. The explosion was then carried out by Ukrainian forces, but we will talk about this case in more detail below.
  • The dam, along with the control post, had been in russian hands since the first weeks of the invasion. After Ukraine's southern offensive in the fall, Ukrainian troops controlled only the western bank of the Dnipro river, and all news about the withdrawal of the russians from Nova Kakhovka concerned only the rotation of their units.
  • For six months, the Ukrainian troops were preparing for a massive counteroffensive along the entire length of the front, so the occupying troops took a defensive position and did not know from which side to expect an attack.
  • A year ago, Ukrainian intelligence reported that the russians were mining the dam.
  • A few days before the attack, the discharge of water was restricted specifically in order to bring the water level in the reservoir to the maximum.
  • Immediately after the explosion, russian authorities, both regional and state, began to juggle multiple versions of what happened, many of which contradict each other.

There are many more of these factors, so I have chosen the most important ones. They are all publicly available so no one with internet access could say "I couldn't have known that".

And now we see that large, serious and well-known Western media, which set the standards of journalism in the world, were able to completely bypass the entire context of the event and approach it as an emergency situation that happened against the circumstances.

It is right? Does it meet the standards? NO. Journalistic standards oblige to submit information in the most transparent format. But in this situation, we see that the information in the articles is presented in such a way that the opinion of the side that has been committing all possible war crimes for more than a year has exactly the same weight as the opinion of the side that is defending itself against the invasion, and the event itself is devoid of context. Is it a transparent and non-committal provision of information? No, it is not. And this is not to mention that the most famous standards of journalism from the BBC are peacetime standards. During the war, the BBC was the main instrument of British propaganda, and these standards were not restored until after the war.

And so we come to the third, currently the last act of this operation. Confusing versions with the help of russian foreign agents and useful idiots to make it difficult to find the culprits and leave an aftertaste of ambiguity among the masses. I'll also give just a few examples here, and of course you can find many more if you want. A day after the collapse of the dam, the most famous pro-russian conspiracy theorist Tucker Carlson, who was fired from FOX for exaggeration, published the first episode of his blog on Twitter. Do you understand this? They got kicked out of FOX for overdoing it. This episode was dedicated to the detonation of the dam by Ukrainian troops, and he used a lot of lies and manipulations as arguments. Despite the fact that this dude is a well-known conspiracy theorist and pro-russian propagandist in the US, his video has garnered tens of millions of views and retweets, including on the pages of far-right movements, bloggers and even Elon Musk. Yes, the ability to manage a business and sell is not always related to intelligence in other areas of life. It is difficult. But not for the first time, and unfortunately, not for the last time.

In any case, the russians, through their information agent, activated a powerful bomb in the English-speaking segment of the Internet, the sounds of which can still be heard, because a person who has been on television for years cannot help but lie. Especially so brazenly. Especially since his views are shared by people like Musk. This one knows for sure, he sends ships into space. In any case, the effect of this video was serious. Within days on Twitter, it received over 100 million views and spawned thousands of discussions and conspiracy theories. A very good move. Why do I think this is a commissioned film? If only because he was fired from FOX more than a month ago, and for some reason during that time there was no other reason to start a blog. Nothing happened. And suddenly, 20 hours after the dam was blown up, a beautiful, well-recorded and professionally edited video appeared first on the blog. Amazing coincidence.

OK, not about Carlson. He has not been the way he is since yesterday. Let's take something lighter. For example, the New York Times again. The day after the dam was raised, the NYT published an article about "neo-Nazi symbols in the Ukrainian armed forces." In addition to the fact that this material is debatable, since much of it is taken from the ceiling, the publication date looks less and less random. Especially since this article in many respects repeats the dogmas of russian propaganda, and sometimes quotes them. Second NYT facap in two days? No. Third. Because there was no place on their Facebook page to post a message about the dam being blown up. After all, the world's biggest man-made disaster since Fukushima isn't a summer salad, a barbecue recipe, or six Prince Harry news stories.

Or maybe Deutsche Welle, which just a few days after everything publishes a video in which they and interviews ask russian soldiers whether they committed crimes near Kyiv? And guess what, they say? No, not them. What propaganda does to people, answers alarmingly leading…

There are many more of these examples and I can add them if necessary, but not in this article, because there are already so many, and you need to read it to the end.

In closing, if anyone still doubts the authorship of the dam blow, here are the next two paragraphs. If you do not have such doubts, you can skip them and immediately proceed to conclusions. I highly recommend you to read these conclusions, because it is not about the dam, and it is not about Ukraine. In a word - you will see.

I will start by saying that the Nova Kakhovka dam was built after the invention of nuclear weapons, but before dams were included in the list of objects prohibited from attack during hostilities. It was built under Stalin and completed under Khrushchov, when the third world seemed a matter of time. So if you think it's built to be destroyed by multiple missiles with 250kg of explosives each, you'd be wrong (so much for the Vilha missile that the russians claimed caused the destruction, in case you forgot). This dam was built to withstand an external nuclear bomb blast. The very idea of turning the Dnipro river into cascades of reservoirs, despite the economic purpose, still had a defensive sense, since in the event of an attack from the west, these dams were to be blown up, and the movement of the enemy in a number of areas was stopped. And they did it in 1941. There was no Kakhovka Reservoir then, but there was Dnipro’s in Zaporizhzhia, and it was this one that was destroyed. To destroy it, the Soviets used 20 tons of explosives, and they destroyed only a quarter of the dam, and only the upper part. 20 tons. That is, as much as fits into a modern truck. Not 250 and not even 1250 kilograms. The number of victims of this outbreak has not been precisely calculated, but estimates of 100,000-120,000 people are clearly overstated. Of course, Soviet propaganda announced that the dam was destroyed by the Germans, but they were in a hurry. The Germans tried to destroy it in 1943, fleeing, but despite the fact that they planted about 200 tons of explosives and many aerial bombs in it, nothing worked, the dam was slightly damaged, but survived. As you can see, both destruction attempts took place during the defense and not during the attack, which is logical after all.

But that was a long time ago. Weapons have changed since those times, so let's move closer to our time, in 2022, to Demydiv, to the dam on the Irpin River. Kyiv defense forces blew it up on February 26, when the russians were approaching Ukrainian capital. This dam was several times smaller than Kakhovskaya (photo), but 1,800 kg of TNT and cables for UR 77, which were laid inside, were used to blow it up. Not outside. UR 77 is a Soviet demining system that has TNT cables weighing up to several hundred kilograms (type UR 77 on YouTube and everyone will see). It gave up only on the second attempt and was not completely destroyed, but only began to leak water. It would take many times more materials to destroy it. I will not talk about the fact that seismologists from Norway, Romania, the USA and other countries recorded the explosion at the Kakhovka dam, but the residents of Nova Kakhovka almost did not hear it from 5 kilometers away. The explosion occurred in the middle of the structure, and much of the sound was absorbed by the water. If it was an external attack, the water would not have taken it, and the sound of the impact of several rockets with a total mass of explosives of at least 750 kg would have been heard by everyone within a 10 km radius. Everyone. The sound of the explosion of 120 mm mines reaches 5-7 km (I know this, because my city is constantly shelled, including by them), not to mention a ton.


If that's not enough for anyone, I invite you to do your own research and let me get to the conclusions.

Why remember all this? After all, with time everything will become clear and the truth will become available. So it will be. But at the same time, thinking that someone needs this truth is an illusion. News in today's world lives for a day or two. Not more. If it is something special, then up to 3-4, but this is quite rare. In such an active and heated topic as war, a message is interrupted by another message within hours. Today we are discussing the explosion, tomorrow we will focus on aid, the day after tomorrow we will bury the dead, then we will survey the damage. And yes - all these are the results of the explosion, but we are already thinking further, focusing on the consequences, not on the causes, and it turns into routine, and routine, as you well know, is very boring and do not collect views. The truth also takes time. A day, two, three, four, a month or 9 years, as with Malaysian Boeing. The only problem is that no one is interested in this truth anymore, because the news has long been routine, and a million new interesting things have happened in the world.

Truth takes time, and people's interest and emotions hate waiting and don't need truth, but information. And here we are treading on very thin ice. Why? Because civilized countries cannot fight on this field. The Western tradition, freedom of speech, the right to one's own opinion and other tools of development and self-realization, which are used in democracies, become weapons in the hands of authoritarianism and are used against democracy. Using freedom of speech, one can sow anti-human conspiracy theories; having the right to freedom of thought, you can write and say whatever you want, lie, manipulate, distort the facts and nobody can do anything. There are no tools.

This situation is a perfect breeding ground for authoritarian regimes, which, using the tools of democracy, try to defeat it, to prove its failure and to destroy it, and we must admit that they are quite successful at this.

In the case of the dam, chaos reigned in the information space for the first few days, and a person who does not know how to work with information, getting into it, will understand only one thing - the truth does not exist. And that's the goal. There is no truth, everyone lies, do not believe the authorities, do not believe the mass media, do not believe us either, because there is no truth and there is no point in looking for it. Ignore it. After such a success, you can't even doubt that the organizers of this action have done a thorough research and will see what worked effectively, what didn't work, where it needed to be improved and which technology showed itself the best. After conducting the information operation in Bucha, they have already learned well. What did you learn? Learn to remove and blur the truth, because if it is not there, then you can do whatever you want and not bear responsibility. Because there is no responsibility. Responsibility arises from the proven truth and the accusation based on it, and if there is no truth, then there is nothing.

This time they hid the truth from the incident in Kakhovka. In a month, there will be no truth in the accident at Zaporizhzhya NPP either. There will be a million versions, Karlson will launch a new video of his blog for 200 million views, Musk will share it, millions of experts with blank pages and tens of millions of arguments will go in the comments around the world and prove why it was profitable for Ukraine to demolish the power plant. The largest world portals will write that "the parties blame each other", and the UN and the Red Cross will be deeply concerned. It will be like this for the first couple of days, until it gets hot, there is no truth, and then... and then, there will be later. When this topic becomes routine, no one will be interested in what happened at that power plant, and at the same time, the perpetrators of this failure will not bear any responsibility for it. Like now. Why do I think something will happen at the power plant? And tell me, what should prevent the russians from destroying it? Maybe not all, maybe a little, maybe, like a dam, they wanted a little, but it turned out as it turned out. So far, they do not lose any opportunity to create some kind of catastrophe for which they would not bear responsibility, and they still, for example, preside over the UN Security Council. Who will forbid them?

Two months after the accident at the nuclear power plant, an atomic bomb will explode near Kyiv or near Lviv, but there will be no truth either, because these are uranium projectiles / a dirty bomb of Ukrainians / the West handed over weapons / Ukrainians bought a bomb or other nonsense that will fly everywhere, because the technology already developed. And so - both sides will blame each other, the media will spin it up, politicians will not take a hard position, because they will not go against the people, and the truth along with the guilty will be unclear, at least because for now someone cares. Well, because there is no truth, there are versions, there are doubts, there are opinions from both sides, which we should listen to and only then make a decision. Do you think it won't be? And why should it be different? The collapse of the dam is the biggest disaster in Europe in many years, but that is no reason why truth is more necessary than information. And there can be a lot of information, especially if someone has learned to fight with it and use it as a weapon.

In closing, I will say one thing. If you think that due to the lack of truth and mechanisms to bring the guilty to justice, the physical threat looms only over Ukraine, then, unfortunately, you are mistaken. If there is no truth anywhere in the world, then there is no responsibility anywhere. And who will prevent the FSS from carrying out terrorist attacks in Europe and the world, as they did before in Ukraine, russia, or in the same Europe, using, among other things, chemical weapons banned a million times.

The developed scheme of saturation and overheating of the information field allows you to do everything without fear of responsibility, because the truth does not exist. Because a subway station in Warsaw, for example, was blown up by Ukrainian intelligence to drag Poland into the war, or a truck with hexane will explode in front of the russian embassy in Berlin for the same reason, or some factory in russia in the range of Ukrainian missiles will explode with mass casualties, so that to show how the Ukrainians use weapons transferred from NATO. Why not? The truth in such situations will emerge in weeks, but pre-prepared news, blogs, articles and arguments will destroy it and the need for it in the first place. If there is enough information to satisfy people's need for it, no one will wait for the truth.

This technology, if it is properly improved (and it will be), will allow its owner to do literally anything. Correcting the results of elections, changing the interpretation of events, phenomena or persons to what is needed, inciting conflicts between citizens and polarizing society even more than now. And I'm not saying that they will start doing it once they learn. They are already doing this, but now it is clear that they are achieving much greater success.

Do you think that this is fantastic and that it will never happen? Then remember the fact that more than 13 years have passed since the Smolensk tragedy with the Polish president, and the truth, together with responsibility, still lies among the wreckage carefully hidden in russia.

By Ivan Kalinichenko

Іван Калініченко

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